HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF GLUBOKOYE
Glubokoye is first mentioned in about 1414 A.D. as a land owned by Zenovy Bratoshich. Grand Duke Vitovt granted the right for Zenovy Bratoshich to own his father’s lands, with the estate Glubokoye mentioned as one of them. The next recorded mentioning of Glubokoye is dated by 1514. The Lithuanian Metrica reads that “an elder of Lord Yuri Disnensky… murdered a man of Lord, His Grace Verkhnyanets… while returning from the market in the estate of Lord Yuri of Glubokoye…”. Hence one can make a conclusion that the town of Glubokoye was a major trade center as early as the start of the 16th century.
At that time the town of Glubokoye was divided into two parts. The southwestern one was owned by the Zenovichs and was part of Oshmyany District, Vilnius Voivodship. The northeastern one was owned by the Korsaks and was part of Polotsk Voivodship. A market square with shops, warehouses, a Uniate church, a hospital was the center of the southwestern part. The Glubokoye Castle was built there. The town’s northeastern part also had a market square as its center where roads to Disna, Polotsk and the town of Berezvechye began.
During the Lithuanian war of 1558-1583 Glubokoye and the surrounding area were considerably destroyed by Moscow troops. In the late 16th century a Calvinist temple, a library and a school were built in Glubokoye. The Trinity Catholic church was opened in 1628. In 1636 voivod of Mstislavl and mayor of Disna Iosif Korsak founded a catholic church and a monastery of the Barefoot Carmelites Order. The Saint Trinity Church was built in mid-17th century (it burnt down in the 1880s).
During the war between the Moscow kingdom and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1654-1667) Glubokoye was occupied by Moscow troops. They built a small wooden fortress to station a military unit. On 6 November 1661 a major battle took place near Glubokoye: troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania led by Charnetsky destroyed a Russian army led by Khovansky (over 18,000 people).
In 1668 the southwestern part of Glubokoye was acquired by the Radziwills. According to the 1702 inventory, the Radziwills estate in Glubokoye had a one-story wooden building, a subsidiary building, a bakery, warehouses, stables, sheds, a pond, a water-powered mill, and other household buildings. The estate included 263 households.
In the 18th century the town had two market squares with shops, with one-story wooden homes prevailing. A synagogue was built in 1742. The Ilyinskaya Chapel was built at the cemetery in the late 18th century.
After the second division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1793) Glubokoye became part of the Russian Empire.
During the 1812 war Glubokoye was occupied by French troops between July and December. Napoleon stayed there for six days starting 18 July. A redeployment depot and major food warehouses were set up there.
Rebels fought against government troops during the resurrection of 1830-1831.
Since 1842 the southeastern part of the town was owned by the state while the southwestern one was privately owned. Glubokoye was the capital of Glubokoye District, included 212 households with 2,161 residents (1861). In 1886 Glubokoye had a brewery, a distillery, a brick factory, several warehouses and private shops. Sunday was the market day. Two fairs were held every year. According to the 1897 population census the town had 5,564 residents. A railway was built to Glubokoye during World War One.
The first Soviets were set up in the town in November 1917. In February-December 1918 Glubokoye was occupied by German troops. In August 1919 – July 1920 and in October 1920 the town was occupied by Polish troops. 5 July 1920 saw battles between Soviet and Polish armies, with many casualties.
In 1921-1939 Glubokoye was part of the Poland, the capital of Disna District, Vilnius Voivodship where 9,700 residents lived before 1939.
In autum 1939 Glubokoye lands became part of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. Glubokoye District (with the town of Glubokoye as its capital) was created by the relevant decree of the Presidium of the BSSR Supreme Council on 15 January 1940 as an administrative unit of Vileika Oblast. The district included the town of Glubokoye, part of Glubokoye County and part of Zalesse County of Disna Oblast. The district occupied 592 km2 and had 35,099 residents (including 9,650 residents in the town of Glubokoye).
On 2 July 1941 Glubokoye was occupied by the Nazi and converted into the center of a region of the Reichskommissariat Ostland (Realm Commissariat Eastland). Located in the town were the region’s administration, a German garrison, and army warehouses. A Jewish ghetto was created in the town and annihilated in 1943. A death camp (stalag No. 351) was situated in the Berezvechye area. The victims were over 27,000 Soviet and Italian POWs.
Soviet troops liberated the town of Glubokoye on 3 July 1944.
Due to the new administrative division (as from 20 September 1944) Glubokoye District became part of Polotsk Oblast.
An administrative reform was carried out in January 1954. Glubokoye District and Plissa District became part of Molodechno Oblast.
The district became part of Vitebsk Oblast on 20 January 1960. In December 1962 Glubokoye District’s area grew larger with the area of Plissa District that had been abolished.
More details are available at www.glubmusej.by